Dog skeletal system


dog skeleton

The skeletal system is structured in the skull and jaw, vertebral column, pelvis or pelvis, hind and front limbs attached to the vertebral column by means of muscles and tendons and ribs that form the rib cage with the sternum.

  • The forelimbs are each made up of scapula, radius humerus, ulna, carpus, metacarpals and phalanges.

  • The hind limbs are each made up of: femur, tibia and fibula, tarsal, metatarsal and phalanges and are also connected to the pelvis thanks to the hip joint. The skeletal system, together with the muscular one, as well as being engaged in movement, has a protective function of the internal organs such as the heart and lungs, or of the brain and spinal cord.

Definition of some specific terms:

  • carpus : skeletal part of connection between arm and metacarpal. It must be wide and strong because the flexor tendons are inserted into it

  • metacarpus : part of the leg that connects the carpus to the foot, having the bones of the metacarpals as the anatomical basis. Its function is to cushion the support and stop pressures, therefore length and direction are different according to the breed. Generally we will have long and relaxed metacarpals in trotters, short and straight in gallopers

  • jaw : skull bone located in the upper part of the mouth, above the jaw

  • lower jaw : head bone located under the lower jaw bone, very important for bite and chewing. It is the only one in the facial region to be equipped with a movable joint called a. Mandibular temporo. Its measure with respect to the upper jaw determines orthognathism, prognathism or enognatism

  • hock : point of the articulation of the hind limbs located between the tarsus and the tibia, corresponding in man to the heel. Very important in movement. The calcaneus (the longest and most prominent bone in the hock region) constitutes an important lever arm and therefore it is good that it is long and wide.

  • teeth : located in the oral cavity they are used for prehension and chewing. In the dog there are 42 teeth divided as follows: 12 incisors, 4 canines, 16 premolars and 10 molars

  • skull : bone box that occupies the top and back of the head containing the brain, cerebellum and brain stem. It is made up of about 50 bones and in the dog its shape shows important differences according to the breed


Cardiocirculatory system of the dog


Digestive system of the dog


Respiratory system of the dog


Endocrine system of the dog


Morphological nomenclature of the dog


Integumentary system of the dog

Portaombrelli design Luca Perlini

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